Top 5 places to travel to for ancient sites

Short getaways to ancient times

If you want to visit sites associated with Ancient Mediterranean cultures the best places to travel are Rome (and Italy), Greece and Egypt but there are other places which are also great. The top 5 below are just the places which are easy to get to from the UK.

 

5. Pont du Gard

This famous aqueduct in the South of France is a beautiful site. Crossing the fast running Gardon River, the three tiered arches of light brown stone work is the epitome of poise and elegance.

 

4. Hadrian’s Wall

The opposite of the Post du Gard, Hadrian’s Wall is a utilitarian bulwark on the wilds of Northern Britain. Although the purpose for its construction have been debated, it is still an impressive site. You can walk along it.

 

3. London

London has several Roman ruins, including a amphitheatre and Mithraeum. Museums like the Petrie, British Museum and Museum of London are also richly stocked with ancient objects. If you are visiting from other countries, it’s the ideal starting point for excursions to Stonehenge, Bath and Coventry.

 

2. Cologne

The German City of Cologne was developed out of a former colony on the strategically  important frontier. The frontiers were vital areas for economic and political life of the empire. Cologne contains several sites in good condition and the Römisch-Germanisches Museum contains exquisite art and objects.

Roman Tower in Cologne

1. Split

Possibly unique in terms of modern cities developing out of ancient sites, the Croatian city of Split grew from the palace of the emperor Diocletian who after reforming the Roman Empire, retired to grow cabbages in his palace at Split. His palace was built like a fortress and resembled a roman camp in its organisation.

Parts of the modern city are built within the remains of these walls. You can visit converted temples and relax in the shades of grand rooms. Croatia is a great tourist location.

 

Wildcard: Coventry

The city of Coventry will become 2021 City of Culture. One of its hidden gems is a partially reconstructed Roman Fort, strategically placed near to the vitally important Fosse Way.

 

Nature through Roman eyes

Nature through Roman Eyes in the Manchester Museum explores how the Roman author Pliny explored nature in his book The Natural History.

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Fish bowl

 

Pliny the Elder

In Pliny’s time, the Roman Empire was massive; stretching from Britain in the North to Sudan and the Sahara in the South and from Spain and Morocco in the west to Syria and Iraq in the East. Rome’s political power stretched further than it’s “frontiers” and its trade routes stretched further still to sub Saharan African, India and China, Russia and Scandinavia. As a result the Roman Empire knew many different climates, each with its own unique fauna and flora.

Although the product of the elite Roman education system Pliny the Elder was a life long learner and, you could say, autodidact. His nephew Pliny the Younger said that his uncle was followed around by a slave who would to him from texts. Pliny the Elder presented himself as living a simple life and complained against Rome’s increasingly indulgent excesses.

Pliny wrote the Natural History which covers all knowledge (not just natural history). It comprises 37 books. His encyclopaedia was “a mixture of folklore, amazing facts and entertaining stories”. Pliny claimed to have consulted 2000 sources and accumulated 20,000 facts. It feels like he didn’t discriminate between facts and so old wives tails jostle with scholarship.

Yet Pliny did observe nature. He is possibly most famous today for organising the relief of Pompeii and heading to the town to witness at close hand the eruption of Vesuvius. He died in the attempt. His nephew Pliny the Younger wrote a moving account of his uncle’s death and the eruption in a letter to the historian Tacitus.

Although the recipient of many of the trappings of Roman power and able to live in luxury (which includes leisure and education, the time to read and write), he complained about luxury. Chapters in The Natural History contain information on how natural resources were or could be used and interesting stories about them. For example, he writes how Roman soldiers were ordered to gather goose feathers for senior commanders in Germany. A most unroman act.

It was this that concerned Pliny about luxury. It weakened Rome. Pliny complained about the trade deficit which saw gold leaving the Roman Empire and being returned in luxury goods like silk, which become increasingly ubiquitous. His view of Roman indolence inspired later writers like Gibbon.

The problem with luxury is of course that what is defined as luxury always shifts . The Romans experienced this too. Tigers were originally rare beasts, too expensive to be slaughtered. By the later Roman Empire several had been killed in shows. Rome continually expanded its trade network for more and more goods.

 

Pliny Attenborough or Pliny Froude?

The exhibition walks a strange line. It presents Pliny as an activist concerned with environmentalism and at one point likens him to David Attenborough. Can we really say this about Pliny? His focus on nature does two things. It focuses on the useful and the good  He was also a colonialist and saw the world through “Roman Eyes”. Rather than David Attenborough, Pliny could be likened to a liberal high Victorian apologist of empire such as JA Froude. To this extent, the Manchester Museum is the perfect setting for the show. To be fair, the exhibition does state Pliny’s interest in the colonial project but it never quite examines how this impacted his understanding of the world and his book.

An antidote to this problem could be found by contrasting him with other authors. Herodotus is the most obvious author. In many ways similar to Pliny in outlook and approach, there is still enough difference between the two to begin to understand what being Roman meant to Pliny. Another interesting ancient author is of course Aelian. His mystical books on animals betray an orientalising gaze to India and Egypt which would be a good contrast to Pliny.

The most obvious solution to this conflict between Pliny as enlightened author and Pliny as colonialist slave owner would be to have the Other speak back. Rome used nature and imagery of nature to portray other nations and Rome’s power over them. For example, Ebony wood was carried in a Triumph by Pompey and Roman coins often use nature.

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Judaea Capta issued by Roman Emperor Vespasian depicting two slaves chained to a palm tree (a symbol of the east).

Yet how did these conquered nations use animals? If you want to find out, I would suggest looking at some Greco-Roman Egyptian figurines. Isis-Thermouthis is the perfect anecdote. In Roman Egypt she was a powerful goddess with powers over fate. She was worshipped by Greek speaking members of the elite, but was little known outside of Egypt. Numerous figurines of Egyptian gods as Roman senior officials have also been found in Egypt. Ultimately ‘nature’ was a politicised concept in the Roman world but one that needs nuance to understand.

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Modern Egyptian artefacts

The past is present becoming Egyptian in the 20th century

 

Room 3 of the British Museum is currently dedicated to items from modern Egypt which tell the story of the country and its engagement with its own past.

The show includes several items including milk bottles, cigarette packets and vinyl records. We still find ancient Egyptian iconography on some of these items today.

The show follows on from the Museum’s crowd sourced Collecting modern Egypt project, but contains different items (including an additional sewing machine)

The most intriguing items in the collection are probably the fashion magazine. Egypt was often portrayed as female. In the postwar period, fashion magazines portrayed fashionable Egyptian women alongside ancient Egyptian imagery.

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In the west “Egyptomania” is a known trend. Blossoming in the 100 years+ period between Napoleon and Tutankhamen, the imagery and flourishes of ancient Egypt were used in Western Countries to evoke luxury, exoticism and style. Egypt also experienced a reinterest in their past at various points of the twentieth century, including during times when they reaffirmed their national autonomy or sought inspiration.

Yet there is a missed opportunity to present a more complex Egypt. The recent show at the Tate Liverpool celebrating the Art et Liberté art collective revealed a vibrant artistic movement, cosmopolitan and politically engaged, who created powerful art which drew only obliquely, if at all, from ancient Egypt.

This criticism is perhaps unfair given that the show’s raison d’être is to examine how Egypt explored its own heritage, but more could have been done to place these cultural artefacts in a wider context. Nevertheless it is an engaging show, which offers a necessary antidote to histories of reception which only focus on Western engagement.

See it now.

Rodin and the art of ancient Greece

Rodin never went to Athens. Instead he visited London, which since 1812 has housed that pinnacle of Greek art, the Parthenon Marbles. He first visited at 40 but was intimate with Greek sculpture from a young age. As a young man he studied in the Louvre galleries and in the print room, and in particular Le Roy’s Les Ruines des plus beaux monuments de la Grèce.

 

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These fragments I have shored against my ruins

From fragmented Greek sculpture, Rodin learnt that bodies and body language could depict emotion and not just facial gestures. In his masterpiece, Les Bourgeois de Calais the six figures are portrayed in deeply psychological terms. Each has a character and psychology defined by both body gesture and facial emotion.

Rodin liked old art with its broken bits. He thought buildings were like bodies, they ultimately decayed and died. He campaigned against restoration of the Parthenon in 1894 following a major earthquake for this reason.

This did not stop him collecting classical sculpture and fragments. He would assemble them together with his own pieces to create new works. Throughout his life he studied Greek art closely and sketched ancient sculptures in his sketch books. Later in life, he revisited these books and began cutting them up.

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Rodin and Phidias

The problem with a show like this is that you always end up asking yourself who was the better artist rather than explore the influences and connections. The best ancient Greek sculpture is peerless. To place pieces from the Parthenon, next to another sculpture will always be unfair, especially if the artists’ work look similar (unpainted marble).

Rodin captured something more than just form from the Greek works. He was interested in movement and dynamism. He argued that photography did not capture movement, it merely arrested its energy artificially. His best works capture this frenetic energy.

Yet can it compare with the works of Phidias and his assistants, who captured movement and emotion and eternity? Although the exhibition liberally quoted from the poet Rilke, will Rodin ever inspire a poet to write as Keats did?

Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss,
Though winning near the goal yet, do not grieve;
She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss,
For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair!

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Museum UX

The exhibition was housed in the British Museum’s next wing. It was well designed, with a well considered UX, but people tended to crowd around large sculptures making it hard to navigate the show.

 

 

 

 

Overall it was an excellent show. 3.5 stars.

Society and the Great Spectacle

2018 is the anniversary of two big spectacles. It is the 50th anniversary of May ’68 and the 250th anniversary of the Royal Academy’s Summer Exhibition. The first has been co-opted like most things. Those hoping to book a place on the latter this year best be careful or instead of 250th Summer Exhibition, they might book The Great Exhibition: 25 Years of the Summer Exhibition.

 

The show presents the 250 history of the Summer Exhibition and it is an uneven history. It began strongly in the Georgian period. The first room has its obligatory Reynolds, Gainbourough and Lawrence. Did portraiture get any better? Poised between a naturalism and classicism the Georgian portraitists revealed those universal truths of art in the particular. Their sitters were predominantly white and rich. Some of their patrons would have made their money from the colonies and from slavery. The portraits are soulful, easy and refined.

The high tide of the Summer Exhibition is in this early period dominated by Turner, Constable and Girton. Painting rural scenes just as industry changed many of these landscapes, their art has resonated with many art lovers ever since.

 

The exhibition breaks somewhere at this point, or depending on your tastes, just after the pre-Raphelites. After this the exhibition becomes first a social history during the later Victorian period and then in the Edwardian period an apologia for privilege.

In the Georgian time, the Summer Exhibition was a society event by the victorian period, this had become stilted. Compare Rowlandson’s print of tumbling beauties with the crinolined belles of Frith’s A Private View of the Royal Academy

The Edwardian period saw the first glimmerings of high modernism, but this was not allowed into the exhibition. What was let in instead where classicising images or problem paintings, posing moral dilemmas for the audience. This is exemplified in the exhibition by Collier’s The Prodigal Daughter.  As an elite institution, the Summer Exhibition was targeted by terrorists. In 1914 Mary Wood attacked the painting of Henry James by John Singer Sargent with a meat cleaver.

The later rooms contain the odd piece by a well known artist but it is the artistic equivalent of a disco record. Their hearts are not really in it. The odd masterpiece floats by like so much flotsam.

 

History of the spectacle

The exhibition is at its best as a history. The most interesting pieces are those which stirred passions: Wilkie’s Village Politicians or The Chelsea Pensioners reading the Waterloo Dispatch, Frith’s Ramsgate Sands or Elizabeth Thompson’s The Roll Call, all tell us something about the society which produced them.

And yet, history is always as much about the present moment as it is about the past. Here, history is not contextualised. I say history but key events of the last 250 years of British History are not mentioned (just for starters empire, slavery, rise of capitalism, over-pollution, parliamentary change).

The show is predominantly male, white and privileged. The odd woman creeps in. Angelica Kauffmann, a founder of the RA, has a prominent position in one of the first rooms, but she is one of the rare women. The RA became an institution of privilege. Although membership was open to all, it was a hard struggle for women to get recognition.

It is what is not said that is most telling. Not just the artists whose work was not exhibited, but those who were excluded from the exhibition and the Royal Academy. Those for whom art was barred. In some areas the RA has done work on this but they obviously felt that the Summer Exhibition was too strong a brand to ‘damage’ with  critique.

 

Is the show is worth seeing? It contains some stunning art work, but lacks context. A much braver show would have examined those works of art which weren’t exhibited, for whatever reasons.

On this occasion I would instead recommend visiting Tate Britain or Manchester Art Gallery. Both museums have examined what it means to be a museum specialising in art created and collected during the colonial period. More work needs to be done, but to shy away from this work – like the RA has done in this exhibition – is no longer acceptable.

 

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The Professor’s Dream, 1848 by Charles Robert Cockerell RA

London in its Original Splendour

Pablo Bronstein is back. He’s doing what he does best. This time he is reimagining baroque London.

London in its Original Splendour depicts a city, part woodcut and part futuristic architectural blueprint. The impersonal 3D shapes reveal traces of Pablo’s exquisite penmanship, just as the urns and columns carry on his interest in recherché architecture.

The cityscape is printed on 3D-rendered wallpaper, which is similar to wallpaper used in the 18th century. It uses tromp l’oeil style techniques to create an expansive view. The tension between flatness and full bodied plump is unnerving.

Pablo has been interested in this throughout much of his career and even before. When he was young his bedroom was painted in a high rococo style.

A mix of styles inspired by London’s rococo Age of Wren and Soane-style architecture, London in its Original Splendour references bits of various buildings around London like the Bank of England and St Paul’s Cathedral. Stepping outside the gallery, you are in the middle of some of London’s finest architecture. On the left you can see St Pauls, on the right the Bank and just in front of you is No 1 Poultry. This is the London vernacular.

Yet Pablo adds something more. He tells us the stories that bricks and corniche work tell us obliquely.

 

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Charmed lives

Charmed Lives in Greece is the recent British Museum show exploding the works and relationships of Niko Ghika, John Craxton and Patrick Leigh Fermor.

 

Ghika, Craxton and Leigh Fermor

These three creatives lived, worked and played in twentieth century Greece. Niko Ghika was a Greek. Born in Athens, he explored traditional Greek artistic motifs, but was also interested in innovative styles He spent some of his youth in Paris.

John Craxton was an English emigre. A sexually fluid man, his work is enthused with a limpid sensuality. He worked from memory and imagination and his pieces are suffused with allusion and longing.

Patrick Leigh Fermor is another Englishman who moved to Greece. He is famous for his travels across Europe during the interwar years and his wartime exploits (filmed as Ill Met by Moonlight by Powell and Pressburger). He settled in Greece and was good friends with Ghika and Craxton.

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Highlights of Charmed Lives

The show is a real treat. Ghika was a master of his craft. He experimented with different styles but returned to similar themes such as nature and landscape. It is sometimes hard to get a grasp of development due to a confusion chronology, but what you lose in strict biography you gain in understanding.

The works of all three artists define post-war optimism. They express colour, freedom, movement and perhaps exoticism. The exoticism of the near East and the timeless ancient.

The ancient enthused the work of Craxton. It was not always prominent but it was there. Craxton’s self portrait is very similar to the Fayum portraits, his painting on the fish market resembles seafood mosaics and his work Voskos is based on a Bronze Age work of art. This influence is often transcends the narrow confines of classicism. ‘Reclining figure with Adphodels I’ draws on greek imagery of asphodel (a symbol of mortality) and pre-Raphelitism to enthuse the art with a heavy homoeroticism.

At other times, the show can be a little literal. A photo of Craxton with a goat is placed next to a painting of a goat by Craxton in Hotel by the Sea. It is only much later in the exhibition that we learn, according to Leigh Fermor that the goats in Craxton’s paintings symbolised “independence and escape”.

 

Conclusion

A great show, this is really worth a visit, not least because it’s free. Four stars.

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Dangerous Days in Ancient Egypt

When I was young I used to love Horrible Histories. I always used to borrow them from the local library.

When they started Horrible Histories were an attack on the conservative values of tradition and ignorance. Even at that late stage, in my younger days, the shades of Victorian historiography were still present in children’s non-fiction. History books still tended to tell the stories of heroes (often, but always, white men) or Whig versions of the progress of societies to a western ideal. It might be extreme to say that Horrible Histories changed all that, but they did have an impact beyond children’s writing.

Dangerous Days in Ancient Egypt is an attempt by author Terry Deary to replicate his successes with Horrible Histories and crack the adult market. Good luck to him. It is unclear why he wants to crack the adult market, when it’s not as buoyant as the children’s market and several adults call themselves “young adults” in order to read his works for younger readers, but fair play.

 

Dangerous Days in Ancient Egypt follows the broad outlines of Ancient Egyptian history from the pre-dynastic period to Cleopatra. It’s a conversational, fast paced book. The jokes are stacked up, sometimes a little too much but that is, perhaps, the charm.

The book tells a history not just of ancient Egypt but also the western study of Ancient Egypt. Unlike some popular historians, Deary foregrounds topical questions on historiography. The colonialist and racist ideology of some early practitioners is explicitly examined and condemned. The book discusses the appropriation of ancient artefacts and the reality behind early excavations. Most refreshingly of all, Deary tells what might be a new history of Egypt for some of his readers without the over excitement of Dan Brown. The real conspiracy behind the study of Ancient Egypt is not that aliens designed the pyramids but that early archaeology was predicated on racist lines.

 

This is a well researched and well considered book.

Like earlier Horrible Histories books Dangerous Days in Ancient Egypt follows the periodisation of Egyptian history by ruler and dynastic house. This of course follows the Egyptian writer Manentho, who is not mentioned.

Deary is less interested in the rulers than the “little people”. The problem is that much of what we know about Ancient Egypt comes from sources which need examining and placing in content before they can begin to be used to write history. Dangerous Days in Ancient Egypt contains several quotes or tales (in boxes) which aren’t referenced. It’s not always clear what is a paraphrase and what is a quote and it’s not always easy to began unpicking how valuable these sources are.

Small errors abound. For example, in discussing the Isiac myth Deary repeats what we know from Plutarch without crediting him (and without explaining the difficulties of using a 2nd century CE philosophic author for a 2,000 year old myth). Most tellingly Deary tells how Isis found every bit from Osiris’ body except his male member. He then goes on to joke about how Isis could conceive Horus without this “one part”. Yet Pluatch’s version states that Isis fashioned a phallus for Osiris to procreate with. The myth of Isis and Osiris is transgressive and rewards a queer reading. It is unclear why Deary didn’t mention this part of the myth when he discusses ithyphallic gods and statues elsewhere.

 

It is hard to not compare Dangerous Days in Ancient Egypt with earlier Horrible Histories titles.

It has less violence and slime than I remember and more sex. The real difference is the lack of cartoons. Martin Brown’s cartoons were both funny and fascinating to examine. He fitted a lot of detail into his images.

The old joke is that adult books don’t have pictures, but I have never understood this. Well considered bookart will always add to the text. That is why Dickens is still printed with illustrations. Ancient Egypt is synonymous for its visual iconography. This book needs art.

 

To sum up, Dangerous Days is a good read but a closer attention to texts and more cartoons would make this worthy of a high 2:1. It’s too broad to really get stuck in. If the series is a goer, then books focusing in on particular sub topics such as Akhenaten, Cleopatra, Awful Archaeologists would be well worth a read.

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Roman Dead

Roman Dead at Museum of London Docklands

Roman London was a small town of around 10,000 – 30,000 inhabitants at its peak. Over its 400 year history (from Claudius to Vortigern) a total of around 250,000 – 300,000 inhabitants lived there.

The Museum of London Docklands are exhibiting several skeletons dating from this period.

Human remains have always fascinated us. John Stow reported on urnes found in Spitalfields in the Elizabethan period. Sir Thomas Browne was inspired by urnes found in Norfolk to write Hydriotaphia, a masterpiece of English literature. Urnes were found during the building of the Express Building on Fleet Street and more recently in 2017, a skeleton was found in 2017 at Harper Road.

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Head of a man, 230 – 270 CE. Could this be a portrait of an emperor or a funerary portrait of a Roman Londoner?

Rituals

In keeping with Roman law, the cemeteries of Londinium were outside the walls, along the main road ways. These cemeteries could be quite ornate and crowded places, but sometimes dangerous. The lair of bandits and outsiders.

There were two main ways of interring the dead. Cremation, an expensive and showy method was used mostly by the elite and inhumation, which tended to be used by the less rich.

The cremated bones of the rich would be placed in urnes. These could be precious metals, clay or even translucent glass. Inhumated remains could be placed in wooden or lead coffins, tile cysts or even in the ground. The exhibition contains two coffins: one wooden and a lead one, decorated with shell patterns.

Some graves would contain goods including jewellery, figurines and bits of food.

The romans had their own rites. The exhibition holds rattles which were used in the funeral rites. The exhibition speculates on how sound may have been used to articulate stages of the process. Rattles may have been used during the announcement of death, trumpets sounded during the procession and possibly moments of silence during the contemplative moments.

 

What do remains tell us?

The exhibition at the Museum of London Docklands is very much based on death. Yet it is often the lives of these inhabitants that interest us. Behind every burial there would be the grieving friends and family, dealing with both the loss and the financial costs.

The skeletons can tell us much about life in the Roman Empire. London was a cosmopolitan city: one of the skeletons is from the Southern Mediterranean background (based on DNA), another may be from a Germanic background (based on evidence of grave goods). We also learn a little about the diseases and diets of its inhabitants. Roman Londoners of all ages enjoyed Thames seafood and cereals, but only began eating meat as adults.

Yet the focus of the exhibition is not on the living, but the dead. 

Death cuts though our lives, but behind every one of these skeletons there was a life lived hopefully with some joy and happiness, but perhaps its own fair share sorrow. It is hard to truly place ourselves in the shoes of a people so distant and understand their lives from the inside, but we can at least empathise with them.

 

Children and animals in Roman London

Sadly details of this life can be glimpsed but only briefly. For example, infants of less than 6 months were buried around the house (sometimes in the floorboards or by the hearth). The exhibition outlines various arguments about why Romans did this and then poses this question which most visitors would not be qualified to even began answering, myself included. It makes the difference between our two cultures very real.

Another interesting is the combination of meanings that animals had in the Roman world. Several graves contain animal remains, yet one grave contains a small Skelton of a dog with a collar. Was this animal a pet?

Religion plays a large part in the lives and death rituals of many inhabitants. Funerals are often traditional affairs and cultural acts are replicated across distances of time and space. Lamps were placed in graves in North Western provinces of the empire.

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Figurine of a smiling boy, 130 -250 CE. Could it be a portrait of the dead or a companion?

Religion

The exhibition displays eight lamps. Four of the lamps are plain, one displays a gladiator scene and three show the Egyptian god Anubis. The three Anubis lamps, look like they were produced from the same stamp.

Anubis was honoured across the Roman Empire as a guide to the dead (or psychopomp). Egypt was famous in Roman times for its animal gods and yet Anubis is the only god regularly portrayed outside of Egypt. He is not as common as Isis, Serapis and Horus (all portrayed as human) but he was still a presence.

On the lamps, Anubis holds a staff and his right hand is risen in salute. This is similar to imagery of Hermanubis, the combination of Hermes and Anubis, popular in Roman times. Hermanubis was venerated as a psychopomp.

From the evidence of the lamps can we say that Anubis was popular in Roman London, and if so, why? Three lamps out of eight, does suggest a noticeable presence of some sort. It could be perhaps his connections to the passage of death, or that there were an association of Anubiacs (known elsewhere) or perhaps a job lot of lamps being sold cheap. It is interesting question that needs examining in more detail.

 

Conclusion of Roman Dead

Ultimately, however good the show is, how much is really added to our understanding by exhibiting the skeletons? The truly interesting part of the exhibitions are the stories behind the bodies. We may not be able reconstruct their lives, but we can begin to approach an understanding of Roman London that is complex, multi-leveled and ambitious. Although we may not respect the world of the Romans, we should, I think, respect their dead.

The Invisible Enemy Should Not Stand 

Michael Rakowitz‘s new sculpture The Invisible Enemy Should Not Stand currently sits on the fourth plinth in London’s Trafalgar Square. It is a replica of an Assyrian sculpture which was destroyed by Daesh in the Mosul Museum in 2015.

The original sculpture was a protective god which stood at the main entrance to Nineveh, capital city of the Assyrian Empire.

The replica is made out of over 10,000 cans of Iraqi date syrup. It is not meant to be an exact replica. Michael calls is a “ghost of the original”. Date syrup was once one of Iraq’s major industries.

The sculpture neatly combines the modern and the ancient. Ancient art and history have become a battleground in the current situation in the Middle East, but we must not forget the humanitarian issues.

The Invisible Enemy Should Not Stand is a powerful piece of public art which brings a bit of beauty to central London but also reminds us all of our roles in this world.

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Detailing of Lamassu

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Read More

Latest Trafalgar Square Fourth Plinth artwork unveiled – BBC News – http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-43565870

Michael Rakowitz unveils Trafalgar Square Fourth Plinth sculpture – Jewish News – http://jewishnews.timesofisrael.com/jewish-artist-michael-rakowitz-unveils-trafalgar-square-fourth-plinth-sculpture/

Winged bull made of syrup cans unveiled on fourth plinth – The Guardian – https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2018/mar/28/winged-bull-syrup-cans-unveiled-fourth-plinth-trafalgar-square

Fourth Plinth: Recreation of ancient winged bull statue destroyed by [Daesh] takes pride of place in Trafalgar Square – Independent – https://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/art/features/fourth-plinth-new-exhibit-trafalgar-square-london-bull-statue-isis-iraq-michael-rakowitz-invisible-a8275291.html